The special effect in the freeway photo above, and the photo of the barge on the River Thames below is called “tilt-shift” and gives you the impression that your looking at a miniature model. It is achieved by tilting both the lens plane and the film plane or sensor plane. I first tried this technique with both 8×10 and 5×4 inch plate cameras back in the 1970s. You can now buy this effect as a app for your iPhone camera, and some newer model point and shoot cameras have it at the touch of a button. By using this technique, the subject can become more of a focal point.